How Do Computers Communicate With Each Other?

In a sense, think about human communication. People use language to communicate with each other. This communication can create a network that connects people. Creating a network means that there is a common medium that connects us all. This could be an idea, a similar hobby, or a job, but on a Computers Communicate with the connection could be just a cable.

Introduction

Consider your thoughts in a human-like manner. Language is used by people to communicate with one another. This conversation has the potential to create a network of people. Creating a network implies that we are all linked through a common medium. It could be an idea, a shared passion, or a job, but the connection can only be a computer cable.

  • Information on computers in general
  • What is the best way for computers to comprehend programs?
  • What does a computer network entail?
  • What does the OSI model entail?
  • The flow of data across the network

Let’s start from the beginning-

Yes, they can. To begin with, the computer is the machine that was invented by humans for people in order to better their quality of life. A computer is a machine that can do arithmetic and logical calculations. It was created to perform certain activities quicker than a human; hence it is fundamentally a computing device.

Multiple programs are processed by the computer system, which uses both hardware and software to do so. A program is a set of instructions designed to accomplish a certain goal.

How do they comprehend the programming, though?

Only the binary form 0 and 1 can be understood by computers. Programmers write programs in a programming language. that’s ways Computers Communicate

Computers work with 0 and 1 sequences.

Computers Communicate with one another using their own network-

On a daily basis, we access the internet. This indicates we’re all part of the same network. The Internet is a worldwide network that connects all of the world’s users, allowing them to interact with one another at any time and from anywhere because they are all members of the same network.

A network is a collection of links. It might also be a collection of smaller networks. A computer network is made up of two or more Computers Communicate that are connected through a network media.

There are two main sorts of networks. Local area networks and wide area networks are the two types. The key distinction is the network’s range of connections.

Let’s start with a basic definition of what a local network is.

Because it is established locally, the LAN (Local Area Network) may link a smaller number of computers, as its name suggests.

You may conceive of a local network as a system that connects individuals who have a common interest, such as computers in a classroom to allow students and staff to interact or computers in a business. The LAN might be a private network that only them can access and utilize. As a result, authorized users may now access the LAN using their IP addresses, as seen below.

Below is also an explanation of how the network recognizes the source and recipient.

Let’s have a look at how a wide area network works now. The Wide Area Network (WAN) can be used to construct a larger network than the LAN as the number of users increases.

The WAN is a network that links networks over wide geographical areas. Assume that the firm has spread its offices to other nations or locations and that they still wish to connect with one another. The Wide Area Network (WAN) is used to carry data over great distances or between networks that are connected to a larger one.

Because of the number of users and complexity, WAN speeds can be slower than LAN speeds, however, this is dependent on the settings.

What method does the network use to figure out which machine is the intended recipient?

We’ve already established a LAN. We can join all of the machines in the same network with a single Ethernet connection. When computer A (or a user) wishes to send a message to computer B, the message travels over the cable and is received by all computers in the network since they all share the same medium.

But how does the network know who the message is intended for?

The message has a final destination, a reader who is eager to read it and is likely to want to exchange information in return. Every machine has a unique MAC address, which the router uses to fix this problem. This address ensures that the computer’s physical address is unique.

The ISP assigns a distinct address to each independent machine. Every computer linked to the network has a unique IP (Internet Protocol) address, which is used to identify the machine. The IP address is four 8-bit values separated by periods, such as 192.168.1.8, and each set is a 0 to 255 range.

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol that allows data to be sent between computers on the same network. Network packets are used to send data. A static IP and a public IP address are assigned to each machine.

Your machine has its own private IP address. Your gadget is given an address by your ISP (Internet Service Provider). The router saves this IP address. A routing table is stored on the router and contains all of the private IP addresses (mobile, laptop, etc.) that are connected to this network. When you connect to a network, the ISP provides you a different IP address. For example, if you connect to a public network like Starbucks, your IP address will change and be supplied by the provider that Starbucks uses.

A router enables a device to connect to the global network (the Internet) using a public IP address. The ISP chooses the public IP address from a routing pool that gives addresses to each network. Public addresses can be dynamic or static, but we won’t go into that right now.

I merely want you to be aware that your computer is connected to a network, and that the network can recognize it by its IP address. Your computer can talk with other computers connected to the same network through Ethernet or a switch.

Every computer in the network uses an Ethernet connection as a communication channel. The wired network can be divided using a switch. The switch, which is in charge of data transmission, is connected to a number of wires. As a result, if computer A wants to transfer data to computer B, the signal is not sent to all of the computers linked to the switch. The MAC addresses are kept on the switch, and the message is only sent when it is required. Switches aid in the avoidance of network collisions.

The OSI model is a diagram that depicts the hierarchy of services –

Every process, such as communication, is characterized by a model. Our model is the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model in this situation. This model is made up of seven layers. The approach, for example, makes it easy for a corporation to verify where layer their product software is crushed in and why it is unstable since their product or data has to traverse through several levels.

It is a voyage via several strata. Each layer has its own set of protocols. Different hardware and software can be used for each protocol. Each level is unrelated to the preceding one; for example, if it displays errors, the problem only occurs at that level since each layer has a distinct mission to complete.

How data is sent from one layer to the next?

We’ll discuss the elements of data transfer from one layer to another without getting into technical specifics in order to comprehend the fundamentals.

Assuming that ethernet is the medium, data is now sent as a signal through it. The transfer of packets from one hop to the next until they reach their destination is what data communication is all about. Hop networking is what it’s called.

The physical layer, which contains the wires, the physical transmission medium, is where data begins its trip. A signal is data. At the first layer, such signals are translated into 0 and 1 values. It’s time to move on to the Datalink layer, which is the second layer. It’s in charge of breaking down the message into smaller bits and determining the data’s network flow. Collects the Mac addresses of nodes in the same network and calculates the path that frames must go from hop to hop (the hop networking).

Next, we’ll look at the IP protocol’s Network layer (Layer 2). This layer receives IP addresses from end-to-end hosts, the sender, and the final destination, the recipient. The Transport layer (Layer 3) then uses the IP protocol to produce a packet header that contains the MAC and IP addresses that were previously discovered. Let’s take a closer look at it.

TCP/IP protocol and Transport layer

The OSI model’s fourth layer is the transport layer. The data volume, pace, and destination are all processed by the transport layer. This layer, too, must adhere to a set of rules.

TCP is used by this layer (Transmission Control Protocol). This protocol, often known as TCP/IP, is based on the IP protocol from the Network layer (Layer 3).

The fourth layer guarantees that data is transmitted without loss or duplication and is error-free. It ensures dependability and is in charge of comprehensive data transmission control before a session is started in the following layer. The transport layer is also in charge of packet segmentation.

Split large amounts of data into packets and this operation ensures data integrity. The main operations of TCP  are packet segmentation, message reception, traffic control, and session multiplexing.

As previously stated, the path of nodes, the hops between MACs, and the IP addresses are all known from the preceding layers. The source and destination ports, the sequence numbers, the Acknowledgement number, and the checksum field are now appended to every packet’s header by TCP.

In order to share information, a link must be created between the nodes. TCP is a two-way communication protocol that is connection focused. During a three-way handshake, the TCP connection is formed. As though the client and server were shaking hands to get to know one another and exchange data packets.

The OSI model’s uppermost level is called the Application layer. This layer is the closest to the end user and allows client-server protocols such as HTTP, which is one of the most widely used. DNS, FTP, HTTPS, and SMTP are among the other protocols that are supported. Allows for the retrieval of resources such as web pages (HTML, images, stylesheets). It’s a layer that’s all about abstraction. computer Allows users to communicate with software programs and ensures that they are available. The final layer includes features like as file and email transmission, domain name services, and remote server login.